The GC-FID (Gas Chromatograph – Flame Ionization Detector) works by injecting a sample into a column (tube) which is then heated in an oven. The evolution from the stationary phase (solid or liquid) to the mobile phase (gas) is measured as it moves through the column and the flame ionization detector. This technique measures the amount of each compound found in the sample, and our software delivers the results as peaks on a graph as they are reflected at varying temperatures over time. The area under the curve is measured and compared to the calibration, resulting in accurately quantified testing.


The HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatograph) operates at lower temperatures, allowing for greater control over variables involved with separation and quantification of numerous chemical compounds. One compound we can isolate is THC-A, which can only be detected in the cooler temperature of the HPLC. The results of THC-A measurement are important because they can tell us how well an edible or topical product is decarboxylated, or chemically transformed into its psychoactive state.


The GC-MS (Gas Chromatagraph – Mass Spectrometer) works much like the GC-FID, but uses a mass spec detector instead of a flame ionization detector. The mass spec separates compounds by molecular weight to further increase our cannabinoid testing accuracy. This highly complex equipment reveals the full terpenoid profile of any cannabis flower sample, the level of residual solvents in smokeable and edible concentrates, and further increases our pesticide testing capabilities.


LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatograph – Tandem Mass Spectrometers) works much like the HPLC, but uses a triple quadrupole mass spec detector instead of UV detection. This highly complex equipment separates compounds and their dissociation products by molecular weight to further increase pesticide testing accuracy and sensitivity at the parts per billion level.